A concise study of gastronomy and food culture in Iranian cuisine

Food has been always considered to be more than just something to eat or drink. Because food in human history has a wide range of common heritage, cultural and social identity, intercultural convergence. Food is a universal language that doesn’t need a translation to be understood by other cultures. Cooking as the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss said is the border crossing from nature to culture. Claude Serge Fischer also considers food the Axis of identity awareness

 
History of Iranian cuisine: 
Researches show that Iranian food culture alongside with chines and roman gastronomy are the three ancient food cultures from which other food cultures originated; Although Iranian food has undergone transformation throughout history, it has always had signs of a unified cultural essence. As it is stated in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh the ancient art of Cooking in Iran which was called “Khaligary” has founded during The Zahhak era, after the mythical rule of the king Jamshid. In Pahlavi inscriptions a list of Iranian cuisine has been remained to be remembered, and had extended throughout the post-Islamic eras. At the end of 10th AH century, during the Safavid Cookery books have been written in Persian which has continued until nowadays, it is said that the variety of Iranian cuisine in Pasty, pottage, deserts and pastries has more than 2200 form and about 110 type of traditional drink and beverage.
 
The traditional food in Iran: 
If we assume that the traditional foods that we have today in a modern way, are those which were made during the ancient time, Foods such as sour bread pastry, barley bread, red and white grilled meat, beverages and drinks are some of the traditional Iranian cuisine, which were mentioned in the Sassanid and Pahlavi eras; in the Book of Khosrow and Ritak. 
Indigenous cuisine in Iran: 
Local, ethnic and Indigenous cuisine in Iran, are the dishes which have the closest bound to the Iranian traditional cuisines, undoubtedly all of the local cuisines even in their most modern recipes are sub branches of the traditional cuisines. Ethnic foods in the process of making and sustaining are in relation with the nature, Ecosystem of that environment. In fact the principle of the diversity of indigenous Iranian cuisine is directly linked to the biodiversity and climate of each region. 
On the other hand the ethnic cuisine are closely interwoven with local rituals; like foods which are served at Nowruz celebration, Yalda, Wedding ceremonies, baby showers, mourning. This is the principle of the continuity of local Iranian cuisines, because most of celebrations in Iran are national and patriotic and repeatable.
 
Diversity of Iranian Cuisine: 
Iranian cuisine is very divers and varied in a different categories, one of which is the Iranian pottage; pottage are a mix of meet, various kinds of bean, vegetables and dairies such as yoghurt and whey, however the diversity of ingredients changes Due to the ecosystem of each part of Iran. 
The Iranian stews are also famous world widely, especially Ghormeh Sabzi, Gheymeh, and Fesenjan. Various types of bread such as, Sangak, Barbary bread, Lavash, Oatcake, Qelif, unleavened bread, and many others, adorn Iranian tableware especially during breakfast.
World Registered Iranian cuisines: 
Rasht with food such as Baghali ghatogh, Mirza Ghassemi, Gomaj Kebab, and… in the Iranian national list, and more than 170 world registered recipe has been inscripted as the world creative city of gastronomy by The UNESCO Creative Cities Network, the other Iranian national cuisines include, Hadik Ashi (Tabriz), Gheymeh Nesar (Qazvin), Ghorut (south Khorasan), Beryani (Isfahan), Kalam Polow (Shiraz), grilled rib and Khelal stew (Kermanshah), Vine Leaf roll and kebab (Borujerd), Ghalieh Mahi (Bushehr), stuffed Ilish (Khuzestan) and many others.
 
Street Foods: 
Falafel is one of the most easily accessible and cheap priced Iranian food items popular among customers, especially tourists and backpackers. This food, which is somewhat similar to the Lebanese Falafel, is based on peas and has a spicy and hot taste. Samosa is also another popular food alongside with Falafel, the ingredients of Samosa is chopped parsley, boiled potato and mince beef wrapped in Lavash and fried in hot oil, it is good to be noted that the origin of these Foods in Iran is Persian gulf boarders including the Khuzestan province. 
Pottages are the other popular everyday food amongst Iranian, the most pottages in Iran are, Ash-e doogh (Tabriz), Sholeh Ghalamkar (Tehran), and a delicious mix called Halim which most commonly used as breakfast. 
However, what’s most mentioned in the menu of common to luxurious restaurant is Kebab which is prepare and present in various kind and various ingredients. Kebabs are usually made with red meet or chicken and are grilled on fire or coil, the different style of making kebabs are Kobideh (minced meet), Barg (pounded meet), Soltani (mix of Barg and Kobideh), Bakhtiari (mix of jujeh kebab and Kobideh), and jujeh Kebab which is made with chicken meet, Jujeh Kebab is the most popular food for camping and family parties among Iranians

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